In 1859, GastonPlante, a French chemist, discovered the significance of chemical reactions on the surface of lead electrodes during the charging and discharging of lead-acid batteries. After more than 150 years of development and improvement, lead-acid battery has become a kind of battery with high safety, low manufacturing cost and stable voltage. Long service life, wide application range, rich in raw materials, low cost, low cost recovery of "resource recovery" products. With the development and utilization of natural energy such as solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy and tidal energy, as well as the development of the electric vehicle industry, lead-acid battery, as a "green" industry that does not consume earth resources, will face a broader space for development and become an indispensable energy product for social production and operation activities and human beings.
1. Performance advantages of lead-acid batteries
The main performance advantages of lead-acid batteries are reflected in the following aspects: the longest industrial production time, the most mature technology, stable and reliable performance, a wide range of applications; using diluted sulfuric acid as electrolyte, no flammability, the battery adopts atmospheric or low pressure design, good safety; high operating voltage, good power supply characteristics, wide operating temperature range, suitable for high rate discharge applications such as HEV; can be used for floating charge, shallow charge, shallow discharge performance, no memory effect, suitable for UPS, renewable energy storage and other fields; large and small battery technology mature, can be made into ampere-hour class below, 1000 ampere-hour below various specifications of battery.
2. Market structure and technical status of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicles in China
According to relevant statistics, the average annual growth rate of global batteries is less than 5%, while the annual growth rate of the total number of batteries in China has reached 9.4%. In particular, lead-acid batteries are developing rapidly, with an annual growth rate of more than 30%. China's lead acid battery market is dominated by automotive batteries, accounting for about 70% of the total market, with an average annual growth rate of 17% in the past five years. Due to the advent of new high-power lead-acid batteries, the continuous improvement of quality level and low-cost advantages, the development of electric bicycles, electric motorcycles as a means of transportation in underdeveloped countries, as a fitness tool in developed countries is amazing. China's output is almost doubling every year. The annual growth rate is 50 percent.
China's battery industry has entered a period of rapid development. After technical transformation and equipment renewal, the industry technology level has been greatly improved. The quality of most products is basically the same as that of international products. Through the improvement of technology, the traditional battery is to seal, maintenance free, colloid and other new technology developments. In particular, the manufacturing technology of deep cycle power battery represented by the independent innovation product of electric bicycle battery in China even exceeds the advanced industrial countries such as Europe, America, Japan and South Korea, and is at the leading level.
In recent years, domestic new lead-acid batteries have been introduced. Colloidal lead-acid batteries with tubular electrodes have been applied in bulk to energy storage and low-speed pure electric vehicles, and their service life and reliability have been greatly improved. The improved AGM lead-acid batteries have been used in batches in low-speed pure electric vehicles. Road tests of various light and micro-hybrid vehicles; Jiangsu Shuangdeng Group through independent research and development technology, the introduction of foreign equipment, mass production of wound lead-acid battery. In addition to the application in a variety of large engineering vehicles, it is also used in a variety of domestic or joint venture brands of light hybrid hybrid vehicles, the model is 6-SPB-50 TART/STOP(start and STOP technology) wound lead battery, used in micro hybrid vehicles, discharge current is 300A, discharge 1.0s starting life has reached 110,000 times, That's much higher than the 20,000 times for a typical AGM battery.
3. New technology of lead acid battery abroad
1) The ceramic diaphragm bipolar lead acid battery for HEV developed jointly by Sweden OPTIMA and Volvo is a new breakthrough in the lead acid battery field. The cell has a bipolar structure and a ceramic diaphragm. It uses 50 percent less lead and 20 percent less weight than conventional lead-acid batteries. Long cycle life, safe and maintenance-free, high charging and discharging efficiency, low price, easy to recycle. Features.
2) 36V/8Ah bipolar ear injury valve-controlled lead acid battery pack developed by Hawke Company in the United States. The battery uses a rolled sheet (0.4mm), non-curing inner chemical city, assembly pressure of a variety of new processes, 8Ah battery can be 250A high rate discharge, its specific power and other performance are up to the level of nickel metal hydride battery, the cost is less than half of the nickel metal hydride battery.
3) Firefly Energy, a subsidiary of NASA, developed a graphite-foam lead-acid battery (also known as FF 3D battery) that improves specific Energy (up to 70Wh/kg) and power characteristics (up to 800-1000Wh/kg); improve the cycle performance and high and low temperature performance of the battery; the lead content is 50 to 70 percent less than that of ordinary lead batteries.
4) The super battery produced by American Dongpan company has been used in Honda's medium hybrid electric vehicle. The application results show that the super battery can completely replace mH-Ni and other hybrid batteries, and its operation performance is better than MH-Ni battery. The cost reduction is more conducive to the recycling of waste batteries.
5) The design of secondary colloidal electrolytes for lead-acid batteries used in electric vehicles by German Sunshine Company was tested. Its 6V 160A H battery has an expected life of up to four years. It has the advantages of large heat capacity and small temperature rise.
4. Development trend
In the field of electric vehicle batteries in the future, due to the low cost of lead-acid batteries and mature promotion technology, the opportunity is not to be underestimated. The promotion of new energy vehicles as soon as possible is one of the options. In 2010, U.S. President Barack Obama announced $2.4 billion in support for Project 48, which aims to develop and produce next-generation batteries and electric vehicles, including a $66.8 million lead-acid battery project. About half of the money goes to research lead-carbon electrode technology to produce advanced lead-acid batteries, and the other half goes to support production of lead-acid-based "supercells." In China's 12th Five-Year Plan, new energy vehicles are listed as one of the seven strategic emerging industries that the country will focus on cultivating and developing in the next five years. According to the prediction of international authorities, the market size of self-use battery is more than 100 billion yuan, and will usher in the peak of lead-acid battery.
In recent years, winding type, bipolar type, graphite foam type, super battery and other new lead batteries have been launched or industrialized in developed countries, and have been applied in dozens of models such as Toyota Prius, Honda Insight, Suzuki TwinHEV, and German LupoHEV. Applications. Alex Molinaroli, President of Johnson Controls Energy Power, analyzed that start-stop technology (micro-hybrid electric vehicle) is the most economical choice for consumers. The ideal power source for this car is a lead-acid battery. The global market demand in 2015 will reach 35 million. Set.
With the application of new lead-acid battery technology, every car and battery car are using lead-acid batteries. The application of new lead-acid battery technology in electric vehicles has significant comparative advantages and broad market prospects.